WASHINGTON — The owner of the Chinese app TikTok rejected an offer on Sunday from Microsoft to take over the firm’s U.S. operations, according to Microsoft officials and other people involved in the negotiations, as time runs out on an executive order from President Trump threatening to ban the popular app unless its American operations are sold.
Microsoft was seen as the American technology company with the deepest pockets to buy TikTok’s U.S. operations from its parent company, ByteDance, and with the greatest ability to address national security concerns that led to Mr. Trump’s order. The move leaves Oracle — one of the few Silicon Valley firms to publicly ally with Mr. Trump — as the sole publicly known remaining bidder for TikTok.
ByteDance has indicated that Oracle would be its “technology partner,” but it was unclear whether that meant it would also take a majority ownership stake of the app, the people involved in the negotiations said.
Microsoft declined to elaborate. ByteDance declined to comment. A spokeswoman for Oracle did not immediately respond to a request for comment.
It is unclear why Microsoft’s offer was rejected, but the company had said in August that it would insist on a series of protections that would essentially give it control of the computer code that TikTok uses for the American and many other English-speaking versions of the app. Weeks later, China issued new regulations that would essentially bar TikTok from transferring its technology to a foreign buyer without explicit permission from the Chinese government.
The Chinese regulations helped scuttle the effort by Microsoft, which said the only way it could both protect the privacy of TikTok users in the United States and prevent Beijing from using the app as a venue for disinformation was to take over the computer source code underlying the app, and the algorithms that determine what videos are seen by the 100 million Americans who use it each month.
Oracle has said nothing publicly about what it would do with TikTok’s underlying technology, which is written by a Chinese engineering team in Beijing — and which Secretary of State Mike Pompeo has charged is answerable to Chinese intelligence agencies. That is a major concern of American intelligence agencies, led by the National Security Agency and United States Cyber Command, which warned internally that whoever controls the computer code could channel — or censor — a range of politically sensitive information to specific users.
ByteDance and TikTok have denied that they help the Chinese government.
TikTok has become the latest flash point between Washington and Beijing over the control of technology that affects American lives. The Trump administration had already banned the Chinese telecom giant Huawei from selling next-generation, or 5G, networks and equipment in the United States, citing the risk of a foreign power controlling the infrastructure on which all internet communications flow.
On Aug. 6, President Trump issued an executive order saying that TikTok must essentially strike a deal to sell off its U.S. operations by Sept. 20. He later issued a second executive order giving ByteDance a few weeks after that to close a sale.
The moves took the U.S.-China battle in new directions. For the first time, the United States was trying to stop a Chinese cultural phenomenon, with an intense following among American teenagers and millennials, which carries with it the possibility of future influence.
Even if Oracle may try to close a deal, it is unclear whether Beijing would create new obstacles to the process. And election-year politics have hung over the negotiations from the start. Unlike many other technology companies, Oracle has cultivated close ties with the Trump administration. Its founder, Larry Ellison, hosted a fund-raiser for Mr. Trump this year, and its chief executive, Safra Catz, served on the president’s transition team and has frequently visited the White House.
Along with Amazon, Oracle tried to win a $10 billion contract to run the Pentagon’s cloud services, one of the most hotly contested technology contracts issued by the Trump administration. Microsoft ultimately won that.
Oracle was also poised to provide the administration with a system earlier this year to help with a planned study that would have enabled the wide release of the malaria drug hydroxychloroquine to treat Covid-19. While doctors had warned the drug could have dangerous side effects, Mr. Trump had promoted its possible use to treat patients infected by the coronavirus.
Oracle’s relationship with the administration has drawn scrutiny. In August, a Department of Labor whistle-blower said that Mr. Trump’s labor secretary, Eugene Scalia, had intervened in a pay discrimination case involving the company.
On a call to discuss Oracle’s earnings last week, Ms. Catz preemptively told analysts that she and Mr. Ellison would not discuss reports about their bid for TikTok.
The rise of TikTok in the United States has been remarkably rapid; it has taken off in just the past two years. ByteDance, founded in 2012, has raised billions of dollars in funding, valuing it at $100 billion, according to PitchBook, which tracks private companies. Its investors include Tiger Global Management, KKR, NEA, SoftBank’s Vision Fund and GGV Capital.
In July, as pressure from the U.S. government escalated, ByteDance began discussions with investors to carve out TikTok.
But the deal quickly become a free-for-all with bids from various corporations and investment entities around the world and new demands from the U.S. and Chinese governments.
As the deal progressed, two of ByteDance’s largest backers, Sequoia Capital and General Atlantic, have sought to retain their holdings in its valuable subsidiary while saving TikTok from a ban in the United States. Both firms are represented on ByteDance’s board of directors.
In late August the firms teamed up with Oracle to bid against Microsoft. Microsoft, meanwhile, teamed up with Walmart to make its bid.
David E. Sanger and David McCabe reported from Washington; Erin Griffith reported from San Francisco.